The motor arrangement is highly flexible. There are eight types of motor and eight combinations of motor-to-camera gears, all of which can be changed in the field. The cameras can also be operated in reverse. Speeds in excess of 24 pictures per second are not permissible. The camera can be mounted on anything from a spider to a high tripod, and on any other piece of equipment as may be desired, such as dollies, three-wheel perambulators, four-wheel velocitators, booms, rotating mounts, etc.
Special mounts have been used for air photography and for underwater work. Speed cameras have been made to shoot up to 96 pictures per second. The threading time of a Technicolor camera is about 3 minutes. Technicolor cartoons are photographed by normal cameras using the successive exposure method with either rotating or sliding filters. The negative is printed on a skipping intermittent printer. All optical and trick effects known to black-and-white can be used for Technicolor. Negatives are developed at night and black-and-white rush prints delivered the following afternoon.
Colour rush prints are delivered the following evening. The records have proved invaluable, not only to the cameraman, but on many occasions to the director and others participating in the production. Of mm. The monopack is used in cameras which are fitted with mm. Technicolor recommend that the Kodachrome exposure for Technicolor reproduction should be on the low side of normal.
Barrel Catling, British director, has recounted his experiences during the making of a documentary which was shot entirely in monopack. His statements do not support the absurdly exaggerated reports which have been quoted from American journals. It is quite clear that after all the fuss there has been some disappointment. The character of the result is only what was predicted by the writer seven years ago,.
Kalmus confidently predicted the demise of the beam-splitter camera. How anybody familiar with the theory of colour photography could have imagined for a moment that it was possible to get prints from negatives extracted from a mm. Kodachrome film which could compare with direct separations defies imagination. The film was English Village, the first British monopack effort.
Catling says that they included a colour chart for every shot. An ultra-violet absorbing filter was used Y-l. The film in this instance seems to have been mm. Kodachrome, since a Vinten camera was employed.
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Small hand tests were processed at Harrow, but the main film had to be sent to Rochester for processing. Finishing on September 12, no rushes were available until December 3, when a black-and-white cutting print arrived. The colour pilots did not arrive until December Greens were rendered on the hard side, and light-soaked whites had a pinky halation. Flesh tints tended to be hot.
The following August Mr. Catling had not seen his film.
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It therefore does not seem to be a very practicable proposition in England as yet. HOCH, W.
Excerpts from the Specifications or abridgements by permission of the Controller of H. M Stationery Office. Coloured light is used in printing which will reverse or neutralize the effect of difference in the range of film densities in the negative gamma control. For negatives having a high contrast gradient, printing light is used of such wavelength as will produce a positive having a comparatively low contrast gradient, and vice versa. Thus, for a two-colour process employing red and green taking filters, ultra-violet and blue filters may be used for printing the positives. The process is especially applicable to multicolour printing on a single film in which the contrast gradients cannot be equalized by development.
Describes the exposure of two films through the celluloid and the superposition of the two films by cementing them back to back before development. Technicolor used double-width film at this period, and after printing it was folded with the images outwards.
It is stated that the developer is to be pyro, subsequently bleaching with potassium ferrocyanide, fixing with hypo, etching away the soft gelatine, and staining the relief images so obtained. The imbibition film is mounted for development after exposure on a thin metal band, or backing. Steel plated with copper is suggested. The metal strip ensures perfect registration when printing by imbibition upon a blank film.
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Processing machinery for dissolving away the unhardened gelatine with hot water which is flowed on to the film at opposite edges from several nozzles. Weaver, E. The gradations in the high-lights of imbibition relief images are made more gradual than those in the half-tone parts by exposure of the film to uniformly distributed light, either previously or simultaneously with the contact printing of the image proper. The film may be rendered absorptive to light of a particular colour, and the uniformly exposing light may be of that colour.
The exposure to uniform light may be approximately the threshold exposure, and both exposures are made from the same side of the film, either from the emulsion side or the celluloid side. Either one or all of the images of a multicolour positive may have been thus exposed to uniformly distributed light.
The densities in the shadows of imbibition reliefs are made at least as great as in the half-tone portions. The film is dyed with a dye absorptive to light of short wavelength, and printing is done with a light of short wavelength mixed with a light of long wavelength. A sharp-cutting dye such as naphthol yellow is used, and it is used in as concentrated a form as possible.
Quinoline yellow is mentioned as a restrainer permitting the use of maximum concentration of naphthol yellow. Printing apparatus for imbibition matrices. The machine enables one negative bearing two-colour records in alternating sequence to print two separate positive films; two printing lights are employed, one for each gate. The type of negative used in this printer is that obtained with a beam-splitter camera of the type described in E.
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The arrangement of the images is the same as in E. Dyes for imbibition printing are highly purified in such a way as to remove any solid matter or impurities, so that the dye will be absorbed upon the printing matrix in accordance with the density of the printing image, without the formation of self-agglomerating components, and will also be freely imbibed into the receptive gelatine surface without diffusion and without the formation of layers or matter which tends to adhere to the surface or becomes detached from the printing matrix.
To the dye solution may also be added a viscosity agent to prevent lateral diffusion, and this may comprise a second dye having relatively low penetration or dispersion, and high definition with respect to the film to be printed. Two acidified dye compositions for red and green respectively are specified. Cornwell-Clyne, Adrian : Colour Cinematography. In the Hernandez-Mejia patents finally became available, and Technicolor initiated immediate steps toward perfecting a three-color dye-transfer, imbibition print system.
This beam-splitter reflected part of the light to an aperture at the left of the lens and allowed the remainder of the light to pass through to a normally located aperture. Three specially hypersensitized films passed through these two apertures. In the rear aperture, a single Super-X Panchromatic film was exposed behind a green filter.
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This filter transmitted both red and blue light, but excluded green. Behind the magenta filter were two strips of film, one behind the other. The front film in the bipack, being an orthochromatic emulsion, recorded only the blue components of the light reaching it. The film carried a red-orange dye which absorbed the blue rays, leaving only the red to affect the rear film.
The panchromatic film in the rear of the bipack thus recorded only the remaining red light.
The three negatives record the primary color aspects red, green and blue of the scene, but they resemble ordinary black and white negatives.